Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Mayan 5200-year Great Cycle in Scripture

The Mayan Calendar 5200-year Great Cycle is a variation of the Long Count Initial Series. Formerly developed in conjunction with the Dresden Codex, the Long Count begins with the presumed Mayan Creation date, noted as The most significant digits on the left are Baktuns (400-years), next are Katuns (20-years), and Tuns (360-days), and Uinals (20-days) and Kins (days). The Long Count measures 13 consecutive 400-year-Baktun-cycles or 5200-Tun-years. Therefore, conjecture rationalizes at least 12 Baktuns and possibly 13 Baktuns have elapsed prior to the onset of the Long Count. The 5200-year Great Cycle, on the other hand, introduces a cyclic calendar system whereby 5200-Tun-years repeat to mirror the 52-year Calendar Round. The secondary age category cumulatively adds to achieve 5200-Tun-years, or as some historians agree, 5200-Haab-solar-years in a Mayan 5200-year Great Cycle. The Great Cycle is generally associated with 5200-Tun-years having 360-days each. Depending on the context used, some opinions favor the 365-day-Haab-solar-year. The special treatment of the Wayeb 5-feast days between the 360-day-Tun-year and the 365-day-Haab-solar-year is usually included for Long Count projections.

The Antediluvian Calendar system applies 13 steps of 400-year-Baktun-cycles to describe the 5200-year Great Cycle from Adam to Enoch. Six 800-year Generation Cycles extend the secondary age category to represent the lives of six Patriarchs. The six secondary ages measure time since fatherhood until the character’s death. Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel and Jared each increment the secondary age category total by two 400-year-Baktun-cycles each. Extra time beyond the 800-year Generation Cycle expresses in terms of 260-day-Tzolken-sacred-years for the first example, Seth. The secondary age of Adam is the 800-year Generation Cycle in Genesis 5:4. The secondary 807-year age of Seth includes the 800-year Generation Cycle, plus 7-Tzolken-sacred-years (Genesis 5:7).

The secondary age category entails thirteen 400-year-Baktun-cycles in the vernacular of the Mayan Calendar. Each 400-year-Baktun-cycle is the halfway, midpoint position for the entire Patriarch’s 800-year Generation Cycle. The end of Adam’s first 400-year-Baktun-cycle in the secondary age category also identifies the end of 130-years in the primary age category. The end of Adam’s second 400-year-Baktun-cycle completes the first 800-year Generation Cycle in the secondary age category.

Seth’s secondary 807-year age follows the same pattern. The third 400-year-Baktun-cycle in the lineage is also Seth’s first 400-year-Baktun-cycle for the secondary age category. Again, at the halfway point, Seth’s primary 105-year age of solar-side time split ends simultaneously with Seth’s first 400-year-Baktun-cycle. The fourth 400-year-Baktun-cycle adds to the secondary age category for Seth. Seth’s secondary age 800-year Generation Cycle finishes at the end of the fourth 400-year-Baktun-cycle. A final period lasting 7-Tzolken-sacred-years or 1,820-days, adds the last primary age 5-Ethiopic-years according to the 364-day-Ethiopic-year. The familiar 365-day-solar-year adjusts by one day every year to add approximately 7-Tzolken-sacred-years from the last 5-years in Seth’s 105-year primary age.

The Holy Bible commits the bulk of this Holy of Holies to exploring given ages for the Antediluvian Patriarchs from Enos to Enoch. Ages of Adam harvested calendar information from several known sources. The Jewish Calendar, Egyptian Calendar and Sun Kingdoms’ Calendars of the Americas assist to discern fundamental requisites of lunar/solar calendar operations. Enhancing our view of ancient time recording, additional materials gathered from the Book of Jubilees, Dead Sea Scrolls, three Book(s) of Enoch and mythological inferences compile for better awareness about ancient calendar systems. Styles of writing and the consistency of meanings are useful in dating ancient texts. The purpose here is to extract pertinent fragmentary evidence offered by ancient writings to facilitate reconstruction of the oldest Antediluvian Calendar system.

Supplementary literature serves our calendar interests. Original Septuagint texts translate to compose most of the canonical Holy Bible. The Septuagint is aptly noted LXX, for the legendary seventy or so scholars involved. Ptolemy II (285–247 B.C.E.) requested six translators from each of the twelve tribes of Israel to work at the library at Alexandria. They translated the first five books of Moses or the Torah. The Pentateuch means the same name in Greek. Most scholars estimate the latter part of the third century for scripture translations into Greek. We are far more interested in the information disseminated in the text rather than every jot, yod or tittle (Matthew 5:18). In English, this compares to crossing t’s and dotting i’s. We can rest assured diligent care was exercised by Septuagint translators in creating Greek renditions of the Bible. According to the Letter of Aristeas, the Jerusalem high priest Eleazar, was to appoint trained Jewish sages to generate precise translations.

Noteworthy resources embrace various stages of correspondence with several collections attributed to be authentically Septuagint. A survey of the similarities and differences yields more specific calendar information targeted toward resolving the ages listed in chapter 5 of Genesis. Contributing texts present themselves against the background of accepted calendar systems. Several Apocryphal (false writings and not canonical) works also became known between 100 B.C.E. and 300 A.D.

Striking 100-year differences exists between the Antediluvian Septuagint calendar ages and those respective ages in the traditional Bible. A contrasting first 100-years of difference exists between the primary age of Adam, as reputed by the Septuagint and the accepted 130-year age in the later Holy Bible versions. The Septuagint mentions the primary age of Adam to be 230-years at Seth’s birth in Genesis 5:3. The Septuagint’s primary 230-year age of Adam departs from a wider set of l/s calendar terms, which indicate Septuagint translators were working with a discrete 100-years single term. Prominent 100-year differences lead us to distinguish 100-year single terms stood alone in the script.

This illustration suggests that 100-days-and-years are an isolated single term. Associated numerical matching of X-days with X-years bolsters a more comprehensive scheme that situates a difference between the 260-year-sacred-cycle and the 360-year midpoint type of cycle. Mayan calendar terminology substitutes for the equivalent 260-year-Tzolken-sacred-cycle and the 360-year-Tun-cycle. Important considerations that select 100-days-and-years graphically determine the difference between 260-day-Tzolken-years and 360-day-Tun-years to formulate the larger frames of 260-year-Tzolken-sacred-cycles and 360-year-Tun-cycles. A distinct 100-year single term is visible in multiple translated texts.

Emphasis for the primary age measures from the characters’ beginning to the primary age time at fatherhood. In the popular Holy Bible, Seth’s primary 105-year age revises to be 205-years in the Septuagint. Scrutiny of the Holy Bible primary 105-year age of Seth reinforces the notion that the 100-year portion was likely a 100-days-and-years single term and that 5-years shares the very same treatment by referring to a special 5-days-and-years single term. Ending the 360-day-Tun-year with the special 5-day Wayeb period agrees with ending a 360-year-Tun-cycle with an outstanding terminal 5-year Wayab. Seth’s last 5-years in the primary age or 1,820-days, link with 7-Tzolken-sacred-years in the secondary age category (Eqn. 13).

Proper historical credit belongs to the Holy Bible from older versions that translate Torah. Modern English versions of the Holy Bible better preserve original settings cast. The Greek Septuagint did a more accurate job of translating spiritual underpinnings as opposed to precise numbers. Modern word searches and the capabilities of the Internet enable exhaustive searching.

The secondary 800-year Generation Cycle age of Adam, measured from fatherhood until Adam’s death, also mutates regarding 700-years in the Septuagint. The primary and secondary ages of Adam offset by 100-years according to the Septuagint. The identical 100-year deviation between the sacred texts affects the secondary age of later characters in the secondary age category by the same amount. The mainstream of the Septuagint copies the generational flow from the character’s age at fatherhood until the characters death. Mesoamerican l/s calendar ages were ideally fixed for both 130-years as half of the 260-year-Tzolken-sacred-cycle and the 400-year-Baktun-cycle as half of the larger 800-year Generation Cycle.

Original Hebrew texts maintained accuracy in keeping with the Sun Kingdom’s calendars. Specific calendar units of measurement show the principal time reckoning ingredients embedded as bits and pieces. Differences lasting 100-years continue throughout the remaining Septuagint genealogy. Seth, for example, has 205-years in the primary age category at his fatherhood of Enos. The secondary 707-year age for Seth likewise indicates a 100-year shortfall from the Holy Bible account. Both cases for Adam and Seth eventually sum for the total age life spans of 930-years for Adam and 912-years for Seth, respectively.

Septuagint translators had access to Torah scrolls and other manuscripts that modern people may never know. Fire partially destroyed the library at Alexandria when Julius Caesar laid siege to the city in 48 B.C.E. The Septuagint was the first canon in the Greek before the New Testament. Books and parts of books were included in the canon. Greek editions of the Hebrew Bible in many different languages aided the spread of Christianity. Some early churches rejected Apocryphal and related works. Septuagint research through all stages, amplifications and modifications is a separate study. Every language and even dialect has particular meanings and interpretations akin to itself. New translations and revisions are undergoing development to this day.

Stringent rules for recopying Torah scrolls have always been in effect. Asserted in Deuteronomy 4:2 and 31:24-26, divine instructions preserve all scriptures intact. Orders prohibit any added or removed words or meanings. The Levite priesthood held stewardship of the scriptures. The New Testament later affirms the “oracles of God” are committed to the Jewish people (Romans 3:2).

The earliest scriptures designed to protect the sanctity and original meanings inherent to the Hebrew Bible determine the copy practices of the Levite priesthood. The chosen Levites were to make new copies of the Bible as older copies wore out. Meticulous rules were in effect for transcribing text. Every page needs to be an exact duplicate, word for word and letter by letter. Counting numbers of words and/or letters per page permitted comparisons to the original text. Up to three people eventually were required to make a copy. A copyist sat in full Jewish dress, accompanied by at least two others tasked with checking the manuscript for errors. Safeguarding the Sacred Text enabled the acclaimed “fence to the scriptures.” Words and letters remained locked into position. A single mistake caused the entire work’s destruction and the whole process started over.

The Temple Scriptures rested inside the Ark of the Covenant of the Holy of Holies. The increasing Jewish population used the same methods for worship and observance wherever they settled. Levite scribes continued to painstakingly duplicate and distribute copies. The Masoretic text of the 9th century C.E. seems to be a standard of authenticity for Biblical scholars. Observing technical terms and relevant styles help to date scrolls and other written information. The last Old Testament Prophet and scribe, Ezra is said to have fixed the canon of the Old Testament about 400 B.C.E. Masoretic text also refers to later versions that date between 500 - 1000 C.E. The moral to this condensed story is to realize due precautions have been observed to ensure the highest degree of content and meaning are conveyed by the new copy. The early pathways of the Holy Bible tell the story of Judaism and the calendar practices of ancient civilization.

Examination of the 100-years precludes simple editorial corruption concerning the frequency and deliberate variations of the Antediluvian ages. The 100-day-and-year single term begins to take new meaning by separating two 50-year-Jubilee-cycle components. Periods of 7-weeks having 50-days are celebrated by the Jewish Calendar festivals of Passover and Counting the Omer that leads to Shav’ot. The King James Version (KJV), New International Version (NIV) and many other versions have corrected any Septuagint errors to reflect original Hebrew.

The Hebrew alphabet is a language and numbering system. Translating numbers into Latin, Greek and finally English combines the numerical value and the unit. Two passes of the 50-days-and-years single term, rather than 100-years, substantially alters our interpretation of the Antediluvian ages. Original Hebrew documents such as the Book of Jubilees and the three Book(s) of Enoch counted the number of repetitions of time cycles or addressed specific days and months during the year. Counting Jubilees as either 49-years or 50-years has been a point of controversy in scholarly circles. Seven-day weeks and 7-year-Sabbath-cycles involve the lunar-side of l/s calendars. Many works mention a decree proclaiming heavenly tablets held written calendar information.

The Book of Jubilees or the Book of Divisions, is another sacred historical text earlier introduced in Ages of Adam. Most likely revised in the 2nd century B.C.E., the Book of Jubilees is a historical account from Creation to Moses. The narrative divides Jubilee periods into 49-years in a familiar story comparable to Genesis. The only complete version of the Book of Jubilees is in Ethiopic. Large sections survive in Latin and Greek.

Are you a pastor, educator or a student of the Holy Bible? Timeemits.com seeks anointed people to review and contribute to the Ages of Adam ministry. Ancient lunar/solar calendars like the Jewish and Mayan calendars provide the background to understanding early time. Ancient calendars of the Holy Bible use differences between the moon and sun, numerical matching and a 364-day calendar year to describe X-number of days that match with X-number of years. Ages of Adam is a free read at http://www.timeemits.com.

Clark Nelson is webmaster for www.timeemits.com and author of Ages of Adam and sequel, Holy of Holies. Contact article@timeemits.com for more information. © Copyright 2006 Clark Nelson and timeemits.com All Rights Reserved.

Saturday, November 24, 2007

Basic Differences of APA and MLA Formats

Citing your paper in Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) formats depend mostly on the subject you are writing on. Mainly, APA style citations are used to cite writings that have a social science focus: Psychology, Business, the Social Sciences, Economics, Medicine, and Criminal Justice and Law. On the other hand, MLA style citations are used to cite writings that have humanities focus: Literature, Mass Communications, Media Studies, etc.

Basic APA/MLA Differences

1. A paper written in MLA format has the author's name and page number displayed in the top right corner of each page. In APA format, the first few words, usually the first three, of the title with the page number runs on the top, right corner of each page.

2. In a MLA formatted paper, the author's name, both first and last name, is spelled out on the bibliography page. In APA, only the last name of the author is spelled out while the first name is an initial.

3. The in-text citation is slightly different. In MLA, the last name of the author and the page number from which the reference was taken is displayed. In APA, the last name and the year of publication are displayed (separated by a comma).

4. The title in MLA and APA style formats has differences in its capitalization. In APA, only the first word of the title is capitalized and in italics. In MLA, all the major words of the title are capitalized.

5. In an MLA formatted paper, there is no abstract required. APA formatted papers does require an abstract.

6. The source page that list the bibliography information is called "Works Cited" in MLA and "References" in APA format. The source page should be the last page of the paper. "Works Cited" and "References" must be centered in both formats.

The differences between MLA and APA citation formats are minor. But writing in either format will ensure that papers are properly cited and the author's chances of plagiarizing are reduced. There are several websites available, via the popular search engines, which give detailed requirements for both APA and MLA style formats.

Over the years, many changes have been made to both formats. When searching for format samples, you must be aware of outdated versions. I have found that by looking for the "Last Updated" dates on web pages, you can reduce your chances of following a version that has been outdated for several years.

About Jimmy Walker
Jimmy Walker is the founder of CitePlanet.com. Find thousands of quality citations from books, periodicals, and electronic sources. Post samples of your work on CitePlanet!

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

EBook New Releases

New Releases

The 4-Hour Work Week
Ferriss, Timothy
Crown Publishing Group

What do you do? Tim Ferriss has trouble answering the question. Depending on when you ask this
controversial Princeton University guest lecturer, he might answer:

“I race motorcycles in Europe.”
“I ski in the ...

Answering Tough Interview Questions for Dummies®
Yeung, Rob
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (UK)

Written for all job hunters – new entrants, mid-level people, very experienced individuals, and technical and non-technical job seekers – Answering Tough Interview Questions For Dummies is packed with the building blocks for ...

Roizen, Michael F.; Oz, Mehmet C.
Free Press

Wouldn't you like to know how to prevent your body from aging badly? The original YOU book showed how bodies work in general, and YOU: On a Diet explained how bodies lose weight and stay fit. Now in YOU: Staying Young, Drs. Michael Roizen and ...

Star Trek
Dillard, J.M.
Star Trek

The U.S.S. Enterprise™ is ready to rejoin the fleet. The body of the great starship -- which managed to survive the deadly Romulan-Reman attack only with Data's ultimate sacrifice -- has been restored. Starfleet hands the Enterprise a ...

The Thirteenth Tale
Setterfield, Diane

When Margaret Lea opened the door to the past, what she confronted was her destiny. The enigmatic Winter has spent six decades creating various outlandish life histories for herself -- all of them inventions that have brought her fame and fortune ...

The Secret
Byrne, Rhonda

Fragments of a Great Secret have been found in the oral traditions, in literature, in religions and philosophies throughout the centuries. For the first time, all the pieces of The Secret come together in an incredible revelation that will be ...

The Easy Step by Step Guide to Building a Positive Media Profile: How to Raise the Profile of Your Organisation Through the Media
Rowson, Pauline

A discussion of how you can build a positive media profile for your organization. It examines how the media works and provides comprehensive information on the dos and don'ts of building good media relations. It also shows how to write a news ...

Interviewing: A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals
Keats, Daphne M.
University of NSW Press

Interviews are increasingly a core part of life in commerce, the professions and in higher education, yet few people are aware of the many skills needed to be a good interviewer. This volume is a guide for all those looking to improve their ...

Sealed With A Kiss
Phillips, Carly
HQN Books

On the outside, Molly Gifford has it all--a hot legal career and Daniel Hunter, her equally hot boyfriend. But what she really wants is a family. So when she discovers her real father, she doesn't hesitate to pack her bags. Even though it means ...

Pack Collection
Whiddon, Karen

Primal and untamed, three shape-shifters risk everything for love... including their lives. But can their love survive once their secret is revealed?. Passion, suspense, and the paranormal await in The Pack Collection by Karen Whiddon. Includes One ...

Monday, November 19, 2007

How To Create A Theme For Your Book

There are six steps to creating a theme for your book: select a subject, specify a supposition statement, sketch three points, situate the introduction, set forth the conclusion, and solidify everything together.

1. Select A Subject
Briefly describe what your book is about. It is not necessary to go into every aspect or element. Think about whom you are and what your experiences have been. One thing for certain, it may be easier to write about you than to write about others or to write fiction.

Also, have you learned at least one life lesson? One sure-fire way of selecting a subject is to think about why you believe your story will make a good book. List all of the reasons you can think of, including triumphs and failures, lessons learned, friendships forged, betrayals, experiences, etc. There are thousands of subjects you can write about in any given story.

2. Specify a Supposition Statement
Do you know why you are writing? Everyone writes for different reasons. Think of your supposition statement as a point you are trying to get over to your readers. Therefore, you should not be afraid to develop your beliefs, judgments and attitudes toward your chosen topic.

If you are truly telling your story, it will be a mistake to remain dispassionate. Whatever your point is, it needs to be clear. Just as there are thousands of possible topics, the subject you choose can have thousands of possible supposition statements.

3. Sketch Three Points
I believe the theme should be developed before the topic. I also believe it is better to develop the "middle" paragraphs before writing the introduction. As a minister, I am often called on to introduce guest speakers at my church and other affairs. I've found it to be much easier to introduce someone after I've gotten to know them.

The same goes for writing. Although the introduction is the first thing that is read, it is easier to introduce something after you know more about it. The more acquainted you are with your subject, the easier the introduction will be to write. So, before your introduction, divide the essence of your theme into three key points.
Begin by writing your supposition statement at the top of a piece of paper. Think of and write down any sustaining points that are in agreement with your supposition statement. Try for at least ten points, but after careful consideration, narrow the list down to three. Write a short paragraph centered upon each point.

4.Situate the Introduction
The introduction has one main goal—it must get attention. It's kind of like being on the dating scene. Speaking from a male perspective, in most cases you have only a couple of seconds to make a good impression. And judging from the lines I've overheard, many would-be suitors need to work on their game.

Introductions can be successfully made by asking a poignant question or by giving valuable insight or information at the very beginning. Although humor can also be used, it should be used sparingly, because hilarity is very subjective. The primary result of the theme is to motivate the writer in you; however, its dual purpose is to enable you to quickly convey your book idea to either a single reader or a full audience.

5. Set Forth the Conclusion
The way your "elevator pitch" ends is the most esteemed, distinct component. Like a proud parent who is always pulling out photos, you must make others see that your personal bestseller is worth getting excited about. The previous four steps will mean nothing to your reader until you present the conclusion you have attained from your soul-searching analysis. This is where many people's effort falls short.

The conclusion should repeat the subject supposition. But to keep from being redundant, you may state it in a different way. The last sentence is very important since the conclusion will also end the theme. Your last words will reside for a while in the subconscious of your readers or hearers.

6. Solidify Everything Together
The final step in creating your theme is putting all of the previous steps together in a way that will allow them to flow, fluidly. You must be able to "put your finger on it," and anyone who hears it must be able to "get it." Remember, it is an elevator speech that must make sense and you must be able to deliver it in about 30 seconds.

Marvin D. Cloud is founder of mybestseller.com and author of "Get Off The Pot: How to Stop Procrastinating and Write Your Personal Bestseller in 90 Days."

Visit http://www.mybestseller.com and grab a free copy of the "Get Off The Pot" newsletter, dedicated to motivating ordinary people to write, publish and sell their books faster, efficient, and more cost-effective.
Source: http://www.websition.com/

Wednesday, November 7, 2007

Wordstock: Portland Book Festival 2007 - November 9-11

Wordstock III is fast approaching!

Although best known for the Book Fair, several events actually make up the Wordstock Festival. Here’s a summary of all the things you can do at Wordstock.

You can keep informed about Wordstock by signing up for the newsletter.

Book Fair
Over 200 national and regional authors from every genre read on 9 stages. Over 100 exhibitors are on hand with their latest books at the Oregon Convention Center.
Read more

Children's Festival
The Children's Stage and the Target Children's Festival at Wordstock are filled with activities that are inspiring and exciting for kids of all ages. There will be storytelling workshops, interactive displays, a book-making area, puppet shows, and more. Onstage we'll feature some of the most exciting writers of books for children, tweens, and young adults working today, including J. Otto Seibold, Matthew Holm, Eric Kimmel, Laini Taylor, and Roscoe Orman, better known to generations of kids as "Gordon" on Sesame Street.
Read more

Live Wire Radio Show
Join us for another special Wordstock edition of the popular public radio variety and vaudeville show. Guests include Harry Shearer, Peter Sagal, Lauren Weedman, John Wesley Harding, Shane Koyczan and more!
Read more

The Night of Literary Feasts
25 prominent authors, national and local, are invited to attend private dinners hosted by individuals or groups. This event is a benefit for writing education in Oregon's K-12 schools through the non-profit organization Community of Writers.
Read more

Tickets are on sale now for Carl Hiaasen, Live Wire, and all of Wordstock's special evening events!
Read more

Wordstock features writing workshops for both teachers and writers. The teachers workshops take place on Friday and Saturday while the writers workshops take place on Saturday and Sunday.
Read more

***Purchase tickets to this event now on TicketsWest

For more Information visit www.wordstockfestival.com


Thursday, November 1, 2007

Writing Original Topics

Nowadays, it's hard to come up with original topics to write about. There are millions of articles, e-zines and web sites packed with information. One of the easiest ways to come up with new subjects to write about is to bundle different topics together.

Below are eight ideas for bundling topics together:

1. Combine your information with new solutions. For example, there are many solutions to get out of debt. If you can think up a new one write about it.
2. Incorporate your information with original fiction. For example, if your topic is fishing, write a fictional story about it.
3. Conjoin your information with an unrelated topic. For example, you could combine chemistry and web marketing together.
4. Link your information with new ideas. For example, if you are writing about typewriters, tell people the difference between them and computers.
5. Connect your information with a new market. For example, you could write about improving your psychic skills targeted at coaches who want to improve their play calling.
6. Merge your information with current news stories. For example, relate your subject to any of the top news stories that will be ongoing for awhile.
7. Blend your information with real life. For example, combine your subject with real life interviews, stories, opinions and personal experiences.
8. Relate your information with new examples. For example, they're thousands of books on marketing but most of them use different examples to make you understand.

Don't limit yourself to only these eight ideas. There are millions of information topics that can help you to brainstorm new writing ideas.

Copyright © 2002 Larry Dotson, All Rights Reserved.

Author Information:
Larry Dotson


1000 Ways To Write, Create, Package And Sell Information Products! http://www.ldpublishing.com